New Millennium Building Systems

Glossary of Terms

Steel Joist Institute, ANSI, Steel Deck Institute Steel Joist Institute ANSI Steel Deck Institute

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

Terms in BLUE and their definitions come from the AISC AND AISI STANDARD Standard Definitions for Use in the Design of Steel Structures, 2004 Edition, First Printing April 2005.

* These terms are usually qualified by the type of load effect, e.g., nominal tensile strength, available compressive strength, design flexural strength.

** Term usually qualified by the type of component, e.g. local web buckling, local flange buckling, etc.

 

4D

Schedule simulation.

5D

Cost accounting simulation.

A & D

Abbreviation for 'Analysis and Design'.

AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)

A regulatory organization which governs the design and specifications of highway bridges.

Accessories

Structural components related to the design, fabrication and erection of steel joists (bar joists) and Joist Girders including, but not limited to sloped end bearings, extended ends, ceiling extensions, bridging and bridging anchors, headers and bottom chord lateral bracing for Joist Girders.

ADL

Abbreviation for 'After Dead Load is Applied'.

AEC

Abbreviation for 'Architecture, Engineering and Construction'.

AECbytes

AEC newsletter – www.aecbytes.com

aecXML

Term for a specific standard format used for BIM electronic data exchange.

Aesthetic

Having the sense of beauty or pleasing to the eye.

AFF

Abbreviation for 'Above Finish Floor'.

AGA (American Galvanizers Association)

A non-profit association representing the post-fabrication hot-dip galvanizing industry.

AGCA (Associated General Contractors of America)

ACG of America is a national trade organization of qualified construction contractors and and industry related companies dedicated to skill, integrity, and responsibility. The AGCA is the voice of the construction industry and is dedicated to improving the quality of construction and protecting the public.

AGC BIM Guide

Published by AGC.

Agility

A word used when describing New Millennium's flexible and responsive approach to steel joist and metal decking design, production and delivery.

AIA (American Institute of Architects)

An organization to unite in fellowship the members of the architectural profession in the United States.

AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.)

Is a non-profit technical specifying and trade organization for the fabricated structural steel industry in the United States. It was founded in 1921 with headquarters located in Chicago. One of their best-known manuals is the Manual of Steel Construction.

AISE (Association of Iron and Steel Engineers)

Abbreviation.

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute)

An institute to promote the interests of the iron and steel industry.

Alignment Chart for Columns

A nomograph for estimating the effective length factor, K, of columns in an unbraced frame. Note that the chart is based upon assumptions of idealized conditions, which seldom exist in real structures.

Allowable Strength*

Nominal strength divided by the safety factor.

Amplitude

A measure of floor vibration. It is the magnitude or total distance traveled by each oscillation of the vibration.

Amplification Factor

A multiplier of the value of moment or deflection in the unbraced length of an axially loaded member to reflect secondary values generated by the eccentricity of the load.

Anchor Bolt

A long 'L' shaped bolt, which is set in concrete and used to anchor columns or other members to a foundation or other support.

Anchor Bolt Plan

A plan view showing the size, location, and projection of all anchor bolts.

Anchorage

The process of fastening a steel joist or joist girder to a masonry, concrete, or steel support by either bolting or welding.

Angle

A hot rolled shape called an Angle with symbol L, which has equal legs or unequal legs.

Angle Unit

A member used as a steel joist substitute, which is intended for use at very short spans (10 feet or less) where open web steel joists are impractical. They are usually used for short spans in skewed bays, over corridors, or for outriggers. It can be made up of two or four angles to form channel sections or box sections. Tube and channel sections are also used. See Joist Substitute.

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)

A nonprofit organization, which promotes the use of U.S. standards internationally

Apex

The highest point on a steel joist or joist girder where the sloped chords meet. See also Peak.

API

Abbreviation for 'Application Programming Interface'.

Applicable Building Code

Building code under which the structure is designed.

Approval Plans

Plans sent by the steel joist manufacturer to the buyer, engineer, architect, contractor or other person for approval. The plans may include a framing plan, elevations, sections, and a material list.

Arched Joist

A non-standard type of steel joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are curved parallel with each other.

ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers)

Founded in 1852, is the oldest national professional engineering society in the United States. It is dedicated to the advancement of the individual civil engineer and the civil engineering profession through education.

ASD (Allowable Strength Design)

Method of proportioning structural components such that the allowable strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the ASD load combinations.

ASD Load Combination

Load combination in the applicable building code intended for allowable strength design (allowable stress design).

Aspect Ratio

For any rectangular configuration, the ratio of the lengths of the sides.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials)

An organization that has developed over 10,000 technical standards, which are used by industries worldwide.

Atrium

An opening or skylighted lobby through two or more floor levels other than an enclosed stairway, elevator, etc.

AutoCAD

The world's most popular computer-aided drafting software product for the personal computer in both DOS and windows by Autodesk, Inc. Anything that can be drawn on a drawing board can be drawn by AutoCAD.

Automatic Welding

A welding procedure using a machine to make a weld.

Auxiliary Load

Any dynamic live loads such as cranes, monorails, and material handling systems.

Available Strength*

Design strength or allowable strength as appropriate.

AWI (American Welding Institute)

An organization established in 1984 to bridge the gap between the findings of basic welding research and the needs of the industry.

AWS (American Welding Society)

A non-profit organization whose major goal is to advance the science, technology, and application of welding and related joining disciplines.

Axial Force

A force tending to elongate or shorten a member.

Axial Compression

An axial force causing compression in a member.

Axial Load

A load whose line of action passes through the centroid of the member's cross-sectional area and is perpendicular to the plane of the section.

Axial Strut Load

A structural member designed to transfer axial tension or compression load only.

Axial Tension

An axial force causing tension in a member.

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Backing Bar

A welding aid used to prevent melting through of a joint when preforming, for example, a complete-joint penetration groove weld.

Balcony

An elevated platform or seating space of an assembly room projecting from a wall of a building.

Ballast Roof

A roof that has selected material, such as crushed stone, placed on its surface to hold down the roof from wind forces.

Bar

A square or round piece of solid steel, which is usually 6 inches or less in width.

Bar Joist

Open Web Steel Joist (OWSJ), a lightweight steel truss consisting, in the standard form, of parallel chords and a triangulated web system, proportioned to span between bearing points. Also known as metal joists or steel joists.

Base Metal

The metal to be welded or cut.

Base Plate

A steel plate welded to the base of a column, which distributes the column loads over an area of foundation large enough to prevent crushing of the concrete and usually secured by anchor bolts.

Base Ply

One layer of felt fastened to the metal deck over which a built-up roof is applied.

Batten

A small piece of angle or plate welded to the heels of a two, angle web members or any two parallel components to tie them together and usually located at the middle of the member.

Bay

The distance between the main structural frames or walls of a building.

BBC (Basic Building Code)

A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction.

Beam

A structural member, usually horizontal, whose main function is to carry loads transverse to its longitudinal axis. These loads usually cause bending of the beam member. Some types of beams are simple, continuous, and cantilever.

Beam-Column

A structural member whose main function is to carry loads both parallel and transverse to its longitudinal axis.

Bearing

The distance that the bearing shoe or seat of a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder extends over its masonry, concrete or steel support.

Bearing Plate

The steel plate used for a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder to bear on when it is supported by masonry or concrete supports. The plate is designed by the Specifying Professional to carry the steel joist reaction to the supporting structure.

Bearing Wall

A wall supporting any vertical loads in addition to its own weight.

Bending Moment

The condition in the analysis of the internal stresses across the cross section of a member, when it is subjected to forces that cause it to bend.

Bending Stress

Is zero at the neutral axis and assumed to increase linearly to a maximum at the outer fibers of the section. Formula in the elastic range: Bending stress (in psi)=(M * c)/I, where 'M' is the bending moment at the section in inch-lbs, 'I' is the moment of inertia of the section in inches^4, and 'c' is the distance from the neutral axis to the point at which the stress is desired in inches.

Bent

The plane of beam or joist girder members, which support loads and the columns which support these members.

Bevel Cut

A single cut made at an angle to the member length. See Miter Cut.

BG-Type Joist Girder

A type of joist girder where steel joists are located at all panel points at which vertical webs and diagonal webs intersect the top chord.

Biaxial Bending

Bending of a structural member at two perpendicular axes at the same time.

Bifurcation

The phenomenon whereby a perfectly straight member may either assume a deflected position, deflect, then twist out of plane, or may remain in an undeflected configuration.

Bill of Lading

A list that gives each part or mark number, quantity, length of material, total weight, or other description of each piece of material that is shipped to a jobsite. The receiver compares each item on this list to what is on the truck and signs the statement. See also Shipping List.

Bills of Material

A list of items or components used for fabrication and accounting purposes. See Cut-List.

BIM

Abbreviation for 'Building Information Modeling'.

BIM ADDENDUM

Current model of contractual language.

BIM Master or Model Manager

Whoever contractually has control of the 3-D model, the gatekeeper and possibly manager of the server.

BIM Handbook

500-page guide published 2008 by John Wiley & Sons.

Blasting

A method of cleaning or of roughening a surface by a forceable stream of sharp angular abrasive.

Blueprint

Also called a blue line. Is a copy of an architectural or other drawing made by a special machine usually on white paper with the lines and text being a blue color.

BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc.)

A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction. It serves primarily the North Central and Northeast United States.

Bolted Splice

The connection between two structural members joined at their ends by bolting to form a single, longer member.

Bond Beam

The top course of block of a masonry wall filled with concrete and reinforcing steel and used to support roof loads.

Bottom Bearing

A bearing condition, where the steel joist or joist girder bears on its bottom chord and not at an underslung condition.

Bottom Chord

The bottom members of a steel joist or joist girder.

Bottom Chord Extension (BCX)

The two angle extended part of a joist bottom chord from the first bottom chord panel point towards the end of the steel joist (bar joist).

Bottom Chord Strut

A bottom chord of a steel joist or joist girder designed to transfer an axial tension or compression load.

Boundary Condition

An idealization to model how a structure is attached to its "external" points of support, for example, pin, fixed, roller, or shear release.

Bow String Joist

A non-standard type of steel joist where the top chord is curved and the bottom chord is straight or level.

Bow's Notation

Used in a graphical analysis of a steel joist or joist girder. It is a notation for denoting truss joints, members, loads, and forces. Capital letters are placed in the spaces between truss members and between forces. Each member and load is then designated by the letters on opposite sides of it.

BPM

Abbreviation for 'Building Product Manufacturer'.

Braced Frame

A frame that resists lateral loads by the use of diagonal bracing, K-braces, or other system of bracing.

Bracket

A structural support attached to a column or wall on which to fasten another structural member.

Bridge Crane

A lifting system which has a hoist that moves laterally on a beam or other member, which then in turn moves longitudinally on a runway made of beams and rails.

Bridging

In general, a member connected to a steel joist (bar joist) to brace it from lateral movement. See also Diagonal Bridging and Horizontal Bridging.

Bridging Anchor

An angle or bent plate attached to a wall where the bridging will be attached or anchored, either by welding or bolting. The ends of all bridging lines terminating at walls or beams shall be anchored thereto.

Bridging Clip

A small piece of angle or plate with a hole or slot that is welded to the top and bottom chord angles so that bridging may be attached.

Bridging Diagram

A diagram of the profile of a steel joist used to show the number and location of the rows of bridging.

Brittle Fracture

The tearing or splitting of a member with little or no prior ductile deformation.

BTU (British Thermal Unit)

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree fahrenheit.

Buckling

Limit state of sudden change in the geometry of a structure or any of its elements under a critical loading condition.

Buckling Load

The load at which a straight member, under compression, transfers to a deflected position.

Buckling Strength

Nominal strength for buckling or instability limit states.

Building

Any structure used for support or for shelter.

Building Code

Regulations established by a recognized agency describing design loads, procedures, quality of materials, and construction details for buildings for the protection of the public.

Building Designer

A registered architect or registered engineer who is responsible for the design of a structure. See Specifying Professional.

Building Official

The officer or other authority, which has the duty of administration and enforcement of a building code.

BuildingSmart

Trademarked NIBS effort to standardize and coordinate the business sector's effort in IFC.

Built-Up Roof

A type of roof composed of two or more layers of alternating felt, tar and asphalt.

Built-Up Section

A structural member made up from individual flat plates welded together or any structural metal elements that are welded or bolted together.

Butt Plate

The end plate of a structural member usually used to rest or butt against a like plate of another member in forming a connection.

Buyer

The entity that has agreed to purchase material from the manufacturer and has also agreed to the terms of sale.

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C Shapes

A hot rolled shape called an American Standard Channel with symbol C.

“C” Section

A structural member cold-formed from sheet steel in the shape of a block "C" which can be used by itself or back to back with another C Section.

CAD

Abbreviation for Computer-Aided Drafting.

Calipers

A mechanical instrument usually having a pair of pivoted legs adjustable to any distance and used to measure thickness, distances between surfaces, and any internal or external diameter which is inaccessible with a scale.

Camber

An upward curvature of the chords of a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder induced during shop fabrication. Note this is in addition to the pitch of the top chord.

Canopy

A projecting member that is supported at one end only.

Cant Strip

A metal decking accessory which is a short piece of gage steel used at 45 degrees where a wall or parapet meets the end of deck.

Canted Seat

A seat that is sloped perpendicular to the member, which most steel joist manufacturers do not do. Usually the steel contractor furnishes a bent plate shim to provide level bearing for the seat.

Cantilever

The part of a member that extends freely over a support, which is not supported at its end.

Cap Plate

A steel plate welded to the top of a column, which a steel joist, joist girder, or other structural member can bear on.

Castellated Beam

Beams manufactured by cutting a hot rolled beam lengthwise, using computer controlled plasma arc torches, often in a half-circle or half hexagon pattern.

Catwalk

Suspended structural framing used to provide access to and between areas below a roof and above a floor.

CD

Construction Drawings or documents

Ceiling Extension

A bottom chord extension except that only one angle of the steel joist (bar joist) bottom chord is extended from the first bottom chord panel point towards the end of the steel joist.

Centerline Span (or Center-to-Center)

A theoretical span definition, which is the distance between the actual centerlines of a beam, column, steel joist, or joist girder.

Centroid

The point in a member at the intersection of two perpendicular axes so located that the moments of the areas on opposite sides of an axis about that axis is zero.

Certified Welder

A welder who has been certified by a competent experienced welding inspector or a recognized testing facility in the field of welding. The welder must be certified to make certain welds under qualified procedures. The welder must be qualified for each position, type weld, electrode, and thickness of base metal that is to be welded in the shop or field.

Change Order

A written document which modifies the plans, specifications, or price of a construction contract.

Channel

A hot rolled structural shape that looks like "[". There are American Standard Channels designated by (C) and Miscellaneous Channels designated by (MC).

Chords

The top and bottom members of a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder. When a chord is comprised of two angles there is usually a gap between the members.

CIS/2

An AISC approved steel industry file format for electronic exchange of data, one of several file formats being considered as “interoperable” for BIM participation, not supported by contractor software.

Cladding

The exterior covering of the structural members of a building.

Clashes

Instances noted by a 3D drawing where two elements occur in the same space and conflict, i.e. ductwork that collides with steel joist (bar joist) members.

Clash Detection

Property built into some but not all 3-D software.

Clash Meetings

Meetings (possibly weekly) by A/E, G.C., subs and others to resolve clashes.

Clear Span

The actual clear distance or opening between supports for a steel joist (bar joist) that is the distance between walls or the distance between the edges of flanges of beams.

Clevis

A U-shaped yoke with internal threads in one end, which can be attached to a threaded rod and the other end a connection with a hole used for a pin or bolt attachment.

Clip Angle

A structural angle, which attaches to the side of a wall, column, beam, etc. where a steel joist, joist girder, or other structural member bears.

Closure Strip

A floor deck accessory made of gage metal which is placed over the ends of metal decking so that concrete cannot run out of the flutes of the deck.

Coefficient of (Linear) Expansion

The change in length, per unit, for a change of one degree of temperature.

Cold-Formed Steel Structural Member

Shape manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets, cut lengths of coils or plates, or by roll forming cold- or hot-rolled coils or sheets; both forming operations being performed at ambient room temperature, that is, without manifest addition of heat such as would be required for hot forming.

Collateral Load

All additional dead loads other than the weight of the building, such as sprinklers, pipes, ceilings, and mechanical or electrical components.

Collocate

Putting employees from different disciplines on the same site to expedite the BIM coordination and clash resolution process. i.e., steel joist (bar joist) draftsman going to the steel detailer's site.

Column

A main vertical member carrying axial loads, which can be combined with bending and shear, from the main roof beams or girders to the foundation. These structural members carry loads parallel to its longitudinal axis.

Column Curve

A curve that shows the relationship between axial column strength and slenderness ratio.

Compact Section

A steel section whose flanges must be continuously connected to the webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression element, and cannot exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios designated in the AISC Manual.

Composite Beam

A steel beam and a concrete slab connected, usually by shear stud connectors, so that they act together to resist the load on the beam.

Compound Arch Joist

A non-standard type of steel joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are curved but not parallel with each other.

Compound Scissor Joist

A non-standard type of steel joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are double pitched but not parallel with each other.

Compression

A condition caused by the action of squeezing or shortening of a component.

Compression Member

Any member in which the primary stress is longitudinal compression.

Concentrated Load

A single load or force that has such a small contact area as to be negligible compared with the entire surface area of the supporting member and applied at a certain point on the structure.

Connection

Combination of structural elements and joints used to transmit forces between two or more members. See also Splice.

Continuity

The term given to a structural system denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to member, as if there were no connections.

Continuous Span

A span that extends over several supports and has more than two points.

Continuous Weld

A weld that extends continuously from one end of a joint to the other.

Contract

A legal document or agreement, enforceable by law, between two or more parties for the doing of something specified, such as the building of a building or furnishing materials.

Contract Documents

Contract drawings, specifications, etc., used to build a structure, which define the responsibilities of the parties involved.

Contract Drawings

All the architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, etc. plans that make up a legal set of contract documents to build a building by.

Conventional Framing

Framing using conventional steel joists, beams, columns, masonry walls, etc. instead of framing used in Metal Building construction.

Coping

The process of removing certain sections of a structural steel member to allow easier fitup to the supporting structural member.

Corbel

Successive courses of masonry projecting from the face of a wall to increase its thickness or to form a shelf or ledge for a structural member to bear on.

Cover Plate

A long plate usually welded to the top or bottom flange of a rolled steel beam or to the bottom chord of a steel joist or joist girder to increase the load carrying capacity of that member.

Coverage

The width of a steel deck sheet, i.e., 30 inches or 36 inches.

Crane

1) A machine used to move material by means of a hoist; 2) A machine that can usually move and is used to lift heavy materials or to lift members that are to be erected in a structure.

Creep

A time-dependent deformation of a structural member under a sustained constant load.

Cricket

A ridge or drainage diverting roof framing.

Crimped Angle Web

A regular angel whose ends have been 'crimped' in the shape of a 'U' whose out-to-out distance is usually one inch. The actual crimped portion of the angle is only a few inches on each end and the end is inserted between top or bottom chord members to be welded.

Critical Load

The load at which deflection of a member or structure occurs as determined by stability analysis.

CSI (Construction Specifications Institute)

Abbreviation.

Curb

A raised edge of a concrete floor slab or support for a mechanical unit.

Curtain Wall

A non-load bearing exterior wall, which carries only its own weight and wind load.

Curvature

The rotation per unit length of a member due to bending forces.

Cut-List

A list of components with dimensions used for fabrication and accounting purposes. See Bill of Materials.

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Damping

For floor vibrations, it is the rate of decay of amplitude.

DB

Abbreviation for 'Design-Build'.

DBB

Abbreviation for 'Design-Bid-Build'.

DD

Abbreviation for 'Design Drawings' or documents.

Dead Load

Loads due to the weight of the components making up the structure and that are intended to remain permanently in place.

Deck

A floor or roof covering made out of gage metal attached by welding or mechanical means to steel joists (bar joists), beams, purlins, or other structural members and can be galvanized, painted, or unpainted.

Design-Build

A Project Delivery System where, in contrast to “design-bid-build” (or “design-tender”), the design and construction aspects are contracted by a single entity.

Design Load

Applied load determined in accordance with either LRFD load combinations or ASD load combinations, whichever is applicable.

Deck Type

The specific type of steel deck to be specified, such as Type “B” Wide Rib, Type “F” Intermediate, Type “N” Deep Rib, Type “A” Narrow Rib, Composite, Cellular, etc.

Deflection

The displacement of a structural member or system under load.

Deformation

The act of distorting or changing the shape or dimensions of a structural element or body resulting from forces or stresses.

Depth of Joist

The out-to-out distance from the top of the top chord to the bottom of the bottom chord taken at some reference location, usually at the midspan of the steel joist or joist girder

Design Documents

The plans, details, sections, specifications, etc. prepared by the building designer.

Design Length

The 'span' of a steel joist or joist girder in feet minus 0.3333 feet.

Design Loads

The loads specified in the contract drawings or specifications, which a building is to be designed for.

Design Strength*

Resistance factor multiplied by the nominal strength.

Diagonal Bracing

Structural members, which are inclined and are usually carrying axial load which enable a structural frame to behave as a truss to resist horizontal loads.

Diagonal Bridging

Two angles or other structural shapes connected from the top chord of one steel joist (bar joist) to the bottom chord of the next joist to form an 'X' shape. These members are almost always connected at their point of intersection.

Diaphragm

Roof, floor or other membrane or bracing system that transfers in-plane forces to the lateral force resisting system.

Diaphragm Action

The resistance to a racking affect or in-plane shear forces offered by roof deck, panels, or other structural members when properly attached to a structural frame.

Double Curvature

When end moments on a structural member produce a bending effect which cause the member to form an S shape or has a reversal in curvature.

Downstanding Leg

The leg of a structural angle, which is projecting down from you when viewing.

Drift

The lateral movement or deflection of a structure.

Drift Index

The ratio of the lateral deflection to the height of the building.

Drift Pin

A tapered pin used during the erection process to align holes in steel members, which are to be connected by bolting.

Duct

Any tube, pipe or other conduit by which air or fluid is transferred.

Duct Opening

The round or square opening required through the web system of a steel joist or joist girder to allow passage of a duct.

Ductility

Is the ability of a material to withstand large inelastic deformations, without fracture. Structural steel has considerable ductility.

Ductility Factor

The ratio of the total deformation at maximum load to the elastic-limit deformation.

DWF

Abbreviation for 'Drawing Web Format'.

DWG

AutoCAD drawing format.

DXF

Abbreviation for 'Drawing Exchange Formats'.

Dynamic Joist™

3-D BIM digital steel joist design component add-on for Tekla Structures version 16.0 R1.

Dynamic Load

A load that varies with time, which includes repeated loads, seismic loads, and other loads created by rapid movement.

Dynamic Manufacturing

New Millennium's unique ability to adjust to any steel joist or metal decking project timeline or changing erection site needs, including staged and just-in-time deliveries.

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Eave

The line along the sidewall of a building, formed by the intersection of the plane of the roof and the plane of the wall.

Eave Height

The vertical distance from finished floor to the eave.

Eave Strut

A structural member located at the eave of a building, which supports a roof and/or wall panels.

Eccentric

The condition that exists when a load is applied on a line of action that does not pass through the centroid of the body it is applied to.

Eccentricity

The distance between a line of action of force and the centroid of the member it is applied to.

Edge Angle

1) A structural angle that is connected around the edge of a steel joist extension or other member 2) An angle used around the sides of a floor to contain the concrete when it is being poured which is also called a Pour Stop.

Edge Distance

The distance from the center of a hole to the edge of a connected part.

Edge Strip

The width or region around the edges of a building where uplift values are higher than in the interior of the roof.

Effective Depth

The distance from the centroid of the top chord to the centroid of the bottom chord.

Effective Length

The equivalent length, KL, used in compression formulas. This method estimates the interaction effects of the total frame on a compression member by using K factors to equate the strength of a framed compression member of length L to an equivalent pin-ended member of length KL subject to axial load only.

Effective Length Factor (K)

The ratio between the effective length and the unbraced length of a member measured between center of gravities of the bracing members. K values are given for several idealized conditions in which joint rotation and translation are realized.

Effective Moment of Inertia

The moment of inertia of the cross section of a member that remains elastic when partial plastification takes place. See Moment of Inertia.

Effective Width

The transverse distance indicating the amount of slab that acts in conjuction with the supporting member.

EJ

Abbrevbation for 'Expansion Joint'.

Elastic Analysis

The analysis of a member, which assumes that material deformation disappears on removal of the force that produced it and the material returns to its original state.

Elastic Design

See Allowable Stress Design and Working Stress Design.

Electrode

The device through which current is conducted through to the arc or base metal during the process of welding.

Embedment

A steel member such as a plate, bolt, stud, or bar cast into a concrete structure, which is used to transmit applied loads to the concrete.

End Bay

The bay that is located from the end of a building to the first interior main frame.

End Diagonal or Web

The first web member on either end of a steel joist or joist girder, which begins at the top chord at the seat and ends at the first bottom chord panel point.

End Distance

The horizontal distance from the first top chord panel point at the end of a steel joist to the first bottom chord panel point.

End Lap

The lap at the end of a sheet of steel deck, which bears over the primary support (steel joist or beam).

End Moment

A moment that is generated at one end or both ends of a steel joist, joist girder, or beam due to continuous frame action which can be caused by wind, live load, or dead load moment.

End Panel

The distance from the panel point at the steel joist seat to the first top chord panel point towards the interior.

End Wall

An exterior wall, which is perpendicular to the ridge of the building.

Envelope

A graphical plot indicating the maximum magnitude of an internal force effect, such as flexual stess, shear stress, axial stress, torsional stress, etc. due to a series of load combinations.

EOD

Abbreviation for 'Edge of Deck'.

EOJ

Abbreviation for 'Edge of Joist'.

EOS

Abbreviation for 'Edge of Slab'.

Equations of Equilibrium

The equations relating a state of static equilibrium of a member or structure, when the resultant of all forces and moments are equal to zero. Three equations must be fulfilled simultaneously: Sum of the forces in the X-direction must equal zero, sum of the forces in the Y-direction must equal zero, and the sum of the moments about any point must equal zero for a two dimensional structure.

Equivalent Uniform Load

A uniform load (in plf) derived from the maximum reaction (in lbs) or the maximum moment (in inch-lbs) of a member carrying various loads. Formula: Weq= 2 * max. reaction (in lbs) divided by length (in feet) or Weq=(8 * max. moment) divided by (lenght^2 (in feet) * 12)

Erection

The process of installing steel joists, joist girders, beams, bridging, metal decking, or other structural members in order to construct a structure.

Erection Plan

Floor or roof plans that identify individual marks, components, and accessories furnished by the steel joist manufactures in a detailed manner to permit proper erection of the steel joist and joist girders. See Framing Plan and Placing Plan.

Erector

The entity that is responsible for the safe and proper erection of the materials in accordance with all applicable codes and regulations.

ERP

Abbreviation for 'Enterprise Resource Planning' – a computer system.

ETO

Abbreviation for 'Engineered to Order'.

Expansion Joint

A break in construction or a special design detail to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the materials of a structure.

EXPRESS

Data modeling language.

Extended End

The extended part of a joist top chord with the seat angles also being extended from the end of the steel joist (bar joist) extension back into the joist and maintaining the standard end bearing depth over the entire length of the extension.

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Fabrication

The manufacturing process to convert raw materials into a finished product, by cutting, punching, welding, cleaning, and painting.

Factor of Safety

Is the ratio of the ultimate load for a member divided by the allowable load for a member and must always be greater than unity.

Factor of Safety

Is the ratio of the ultimate load for a member divided by the allowable load for a member and must always be greater than unity.

Factored Load

Product of a load factor and the nominal load.

Farside

For steel joists and joist girders, when looking at the member with the tagged end to the right, it is the side that is opposite the side you see first.

Fascia

The flat surface located at the outer end of a roof overhang, or cantilever end, or also a decorative trim or panel which projects from the face of a wall.

Fastener

Term for a connecting device such as a weld, bolt, rivet, etc.

FC

Abbreviation for 'Field Cut'.

FCI

Facility Condition Index – metric related to BIM for older pre-existing facilities.

Field

A term used for the jobsite or building site where construction of the project will take place.

Field Weld

The specific term used for the welding of structural members out at the actual jobsite and not in a fabricators shop.

Filler

A rod, plate, or angle welded between a two-angle web member or between a top or bottom chord panel to tie them together, usually located at the middle of the member. See Tie or Plug.

Finish

In deck terminology, the coating on the steel deck sheet, i.e., galvanized, painted, or unpainted.

Finish Strip

A roof deck accessory made out of gage metal for finishing out runs of steel deck for small areas of coverage where full sheet coverage is impractical.

Fire Proofing

The process of coating a structural steel member with a fire retardant material to make the member resistant to fire.

Fire-Resistance

The ability of a steel joist or other structural member to resist a fire due to the type of protection it has, such as membrane protection or spray on protection. There are hundreds of floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies with their fire-resistance rating given in the Underwriters Laboratory Fire Directory.

Fixed-End Support

A condition where no rotation or horizontal or vertical movement can occur at that end. This type of support has no degrees of freedom. Three reactive forces exist at the rigidly fixed end. See also Rigid Connection.

Flange

The projecting edge of a structural member.

Flange Brace

A structural bracing member used to provide lateral support to the flange of a beam, the bottom chord or a joist girder, or a column.

Flashing

Pieces of sheet metal or the like used to cover and protect joints, etc. where a roof comes in contact with a wall or chimney.

Flexible to the Finish

We keep our promises. When you ask for steel joists and metal decking delivered by a certain time, and we say we can do it, it gets done. We don't overlook the details that can bring a job to a standstill. We refuse to let little problems become big problems.

Flexural Buckling

Buckling mode in which a compression member deflects laterally without twist or change in cross-sectional shape.

Flexural-Torsional Buckling

Buckling mode in which a compression member bends and twists simultaneously without change in cross-sectional shape.

Flute

The fold or bend in a sheet of steel deck which forms a groove or furrow.

FMS (Factory Mutual System)

A leader in property loss prevention engineering and adjustment. It helps companies prevent and control property loss through research, engineering, and education.

Folding Partition

A moveable wall on a track suspended from a steel joist or beam, which usually folds like an accordion and can be stored in a closet or pocket in a wall.

Footing

A concrete pad or mat located under a column, wall, or other structural member that distributes loads from that member into the supporting soil.

Foundation

The substructure that supports a building or other structure.

Frame

A structural framing system consisting of members joined together with moment or rigid connections, which maintain their original angular relationship under load without the need for bracing in its plane. See Rigid Frame.

Framed Opening

Headers or other structural members, which surround an opening in a roof which can be for mechanical units, stairwells, etc.

Framing Plan

Floor or roof plans that identify individual marks, components, and accessories furnished by the steel joist manufactures in a detailed manner to permit proper erection of the steel joist and joist girders. See Erection Plan and Placing Plan.

Free-Body Diagram

A diagram on which all of the external forces acting on a body are shown at their respective points of application.

Frequency

A measure of floor vibration. It is the speed of the oscillations of vibration and is expressed in cycles per secong or Hz (Hertz).

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GCA (Associated General Contractors of America)

ACG of America is a national trade organization of qualified construction contractors and industry related companies dedicated to skill, integrity, and responsibility. The AGCA is the voice of the construction industry and is dedicated to improving the quality of construction and protecting the public.

G-Type Joist Girder

A type of Steel Joist Girder where steel joists are located at panel points where diagonal webs intersect the top chord only.

Gable

The triangular portion of a roof located above the elevation of the eave line of a double-sloped roof.

Gable Joist

A non-standard type of steel joist where the top chord is double pitched at an extreme pitch (say 3/12) and the bottom chord is straight or level.

Gage

1) The thickness of a sheet of deck; or 2) The distance from centerline hole to centerline hole across a set of holes, usually perpendicular to the steel joist or joist girder.

Galvanized

The process of coating steel with zinc for corrosion resistance.

Gambrel

A roof having two slopes on each side, the lower slope usually steeper than the upper one.

gbXML

New subset of BIM efforts that focuses on green building design and operation and organizes information for energy simulation purposes.

Girder

A main horizontal, primary structural member spanning between two main supports, which carries other members or vertical loads.

Girt

Horizontal structural member that supports wall panels and is primarily subjected to bending under horizontal loads, such as wind load.

Grade

The ground elevation around a building.

Gravity Load

Load, such as that produced by dead and live loads, acting in the downward direction.

Grillage Beam

A short beam used like a bearing plate to distribute large reactive loads to a wall such as the load from a joist girder.

Gusset Plate

A steel plate used to connect structural steel members or to reinforce members. It is usually inserted between the top or bottom chord of a steel joist or joist girder.

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H-Series Joist

A series of joist adopted in 1961 so proportioned that the allowable tension or bending stress does not exceed 22,000 psi or 30,000 psi depending on whether 36 ksi or 50 ksi yield steel was used.

Hardness

Is a measure of the resistance of a material to scratching and indention.

Header

A structural member located between two steel joists or between a steel joist and a wall, which carries another steel joist or joists. Usually made up of an angle, channel, or beam with saddle angle connections on each end for bearing.

Heel

The outside point of a structural angle, where the two perpendicular legs intersect.

High Strength Bolts

A structural steel bolt having a tensile strength greater than 100,000 pounds per square inch, usually A325 or A490.

High Strength Steel

Structural steel having a yield stress greater than 36,000 pounds per square inch.

Hinge Support

This type of support has one degree of freedom, it can freely rotate about its axis but it cannot displace in any direction. Two mutually perpendicular reactive forces exist at the hinge and their lines of action pass through the center of the hinge. See Pin Connection or Support.

Hip Roof

A roof that slopes from all four sides of a building. The line where two adjacent sloping sides intersect is called the 'hip'.

Hip and Valley

A system of roof framing, where support members form valleys and ridges.

Hoist

A chain or electric lifting device usually attached to a trolly, which travels along a monorail or bridge crane.

Homogeneous Material

A material having the same engineering design properties throughout.

Hooke's Law

The linear relationship of forces and deformations, or stresses and strains.

Horizontal Bridging

A continuous angle or other structural shape connected to the top and bottom chord of a steel joist horizontally whose l/r ratio cannot exceed 300

Horizontal Shear Stress

Is zero at the outer fibers of a section and is maximum at the neutral axis. It tends to cause one part of the section to slide past the other. Formula: Horizontal Shear stress (in psi)=(V * Q)/I*t, where 'V' is the external vertical shear on the section in lbs, 'I' is the moment of inertia of the section in inches^4, 'Q' is the statical moment about the neutral axis of the entire section of that portion of the cross-section lying outside of the cutting plane and 't' is the width at the cutting plane.

Hot-Rolled Shapes

Structural steel sections which are formed by rolling mills from molten steel which can be angles, channels, W Shapes, S Shapes, etc.

HP Shapes

A hot rolled shape with symbol HP used for bearing piles, which have essentially parallel flanges and equal web and flange thickness.

Hysteresis

A term that describes the behavior of a structural member subjected to reversed, repeated load into the inelastic range whose plot of load verses displacement is characterized by loops. The amount of energy dissipated during inelastic loading is indicated by the enclosed area within these loops.

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IAI

Abbreviation for 'International Alliance for Interoperability'.

ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials (Uniform Building Code)

A minimum model regulatory code dedicated to public safety through development and promotion of uniform codes and standards.

Ice Dam

A dam or blockage formed on a roof by the buildup of ice along the eave of a building.

IDM

Abbreviation for 'Information Delivery Manual' – European effort in IFC, see NBIMS.

IFC

Industry Foundation Classes – broad term for standard formats used for most BIM electronic data exchange, developed by the IAI.

IFI (Industrial Fasteners Institute)

Abbreviation.

IGES

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification – standard format for exchanging three-dimensional data and information.

III (Institute of the Ironworking Industry)

Abbreviation.

Impact Factor

The factor by which the static weight is increased by dynamic application.

Impact Load

A weight that is dropped or a dynamic load generated by movement of a live load such as vehicles, craneways, etc.

Impact Strength

The ability of a material to absorb the energy of a load delivered rapidly to a member.

Impact Wrench

A pneumatic device used to tighten nuts on bolts.

Inclusions

Nonmetallic material that is entrapped in sound metal.

Inelastic Action

Deformation of a material that does not disappear when the force that produced it is removed.

Inelastic Analysis

Structural analysis that takes into account inelastic material behavior, including plastic analysis.

Inflection Point

Represent a point of zero moment in structural member.

Influence Line

An influence line is a curve whose ordinates give the values of some particular function (shear, moment, reaction, etc.) in an element due to a unit load acting at the point corresponding to the particular ordinate being considered. Influence lines for statically determinate structures are straight lines and for statically indeterminate structures the lines are curved and their construction involves considerable analysis.

Instability

A condition reached when a structure or structural member is loaded in which continued deformation results in a decrease in its load-resisting capacity.

Insulation

Any material used to reduce heat transfer in a roof or building.

Integrated Project Delivery

The collaborative process of people, systems, business structures and practices that harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction.

Intermittent Weld

A weld that is not continuous. It is broken by recurring, unwelded spaces.

Internal Pressure

The pressure inside a building, which is a function of the wind velocity and the number and locations of openings.

Interior Bearing

Bearing supports that are interior to two exterior supports.

ISO 9000 (International Organization for Standardization)

Is a series of quality management and assurance standards for companies to strive for.

IPD

Abbreviation for 'Integrated Project Delivery'.

Isotropic

A material having equal physical properties along all axes.

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J-Series Joist

A series of steel joist adopted in 1961 so proportioned that the allowable tension or bending stress does not exceed 22,000 psi and was made from A36 steel.

Jack Truss

A joist girder that is supporting another joist girder.

JBE

Abbreviation for 'Joist Bearing Elevation'.

Jib Crane

A cantilevered boom or beam with a hoist and trolley used to pick up loads in all or part of a circle around which it is attached.

Jig

A device which holds work or pieces of material in a certain position until rigidly fastened or welded during the fabrication process.

Jobsite

The specific location where a structure is being built.

Joint

Area where two or more ends, surfaces or edges are attached. Categorized by type of fastener or weld used and the method of force transfer.

Joint Penetration

The minimum depth the weld metal extends from its face into a joint.

Joist

A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member. Also known as steel joist or bar joist. Currently, the SJI has the following joist designations: K-Series including KCS, LH-Series and DLH-Series.

Joist Designation

A standard way of communicating the joist safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities for a given span such as 16K5 or 24K10 where the first number is the nominal steel joist depth at midspan and the last number is the chord size. See Longspan Designation and Joist Girder Designation.

Joist Girder

A primary structural load-carrying member with an open web system designed as a simple span supporting equally spaced concentrated loads of a floor or roof system acting at the panel points of the member and utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel.

Joist Girder Designation

A standard way of communicating the girder design loads such as 48G6N10.5K where the first number is the nominal girder depth at midspan, 6N is the number of steel joist spaces on the span of girder, and 10.5K is the kip load on each panel point of the girder. The approximate dead load weight of the member is included in the kip load. See Joist Designation and Longspan Designation.

Joist Manufacturer

The producer of steel joists (bar joists) special profile joists (specialty joists) or joist girders who is SJI approved.

Joist Spacing

The distance from one steel joist to another.

Joist Substitute

A structural member who's intended use is for very short spans (10 feet or less) where open web steel joists (bar joists) are impractical. They are usually used for short spans in skewed bays, over corridors or for outriggers. It can be made up of two or four angles to form channel sections or box sections.

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K-Distance

The distance from the outside fiber of a rolled steel beam to the web toe of the fillet of a rolled shape.

K-Series Joist

A series of steel joist adopted in 1986 based on a load/span type of determination.

KCS Joist

Is a K-Series steel joist that is designed to support uniform load plus concentrated loads or other non-uniform loads.

Kerf

The width of a cut produced during a cutting process.

Key Plan

A small reference plan or outline of the whole building on each plan sheet divided into smaller areas, for which each sheet is drawn. It can also show different sequences, phases, sheet number that area is drawn on, etc.

Kicker

A structural member used to brace a steel joist or beam usually at an angle.

Kilo

SI prefix for 10^3 or 1000.

Kip

A unit of weight equal to 1000 pounds.

Knee Brace

A structural brace positioned diagonally between a beam or column and a steel joist panel point.

Knife Plate Seat

A vertical plate used as a steel joist seat whose width is small for bearing purposes. It is used for hip and valley bearing conditions, canted seat conditions, and extreme skewed conditions.

KSI (Kips per Linear Foot)

Is 1000 pounds per square inch.

KSF (Kips per Square Foot)

Is 1000 kips per square foot.

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Lamellar Tearing

Is a separation or crack in the base metal caused by through-thickness weld shrinkage strains of adjacent weld metal.

Lateral Buckling

Buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending.

Lateral Bracing

Members, fasteners, or welds, which brace a member at certain locations to prevent lateral movement.

Lateral-Torsional Buckling

Buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending occurring simultaneously with twist about the shear center of the cross section

Lean Principles

Controlling project to minimize cost i.e. steel joists and metal decking delivered to site in accurate liftable bundles, ready for trailer straight to erection.

Lean-To

A structure depending upon another structure for support and having only one slope such as a shed.

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, the standard for Green Building design.

Leeward

The direction toward which the wind is blowing, which is opposite the side from which the wind blows. Opposite of windward.

Leg

The flat projecting part of a structural angle.

Leveling Plate

A steel plate used on top of a foundation on which a structural column can be placed.

Limit State

Condition in which a structure or component becomes unfit for service and is judged either to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to have reached its ultimate load-carrying capacity (strength limit state).

Lintel

A horizontal structural member spanning a door, window, or other wall opening which supports a wall or any construction immediately above.

Live Load

Loads on a member that are not permanent and are likely to be moved at some point in the life of the structure. They can be loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building. These loads do not include dead load, wind load, snow load, or seismic load.

Load

Force or other action that results from the weight of building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, or restrained dimensional changes.

Load Combination

The combination of loads that produce the worse loading condition in a structural member.

Load Effect

Forces, stresses, and deformations produced in a structural component by the applied loads.

Load Factor

Factor that accounts for deviations of the nominal load from the actual load, for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.

Load Table

A table of standard steel joist designations which give the total safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities and live load-carrying capacities of the steel joists for different span lengths. The table also gives the approximate weight per foot of each steel joist designation.

Loading Diagram

A diagram that shows all design loads and design criteria that a member is to be designed for. The loads include: dead load, live load, snow drift, concentrated loads, moments, etc. The design criteria include: deflection requirements, load combinations, net uplift, one-third increase in allowable stress allowed or not, etc.

Local Buckling**

Limit state of buckling of a compression element within a cross section.

LOD

Abbreviation for 'Level of Detail' – extent to which components are modeled.

Lonely BIM

Modeling for one's own use as opposed to Social BIM – modeling done by one or a group for general group use.

Longitudinal

The direction extending along the long axis of the member.

Longspan Designation

A standard way of communicating the longspan steel joist safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities for a given clear span such as 18LH06 or 36LH10 where the first number is the nominal steel joist depth at midspan and the last number is the section number. See Joist Designation and Joist Girder Designation.

Longspan Joist

A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member. These carry higher loads than a regular steel joist.

Loose Angle Strut

A single or double angle either welded or bolted at the first bottom chord panel point and extended to brace another member such as a beam, joist girder, frame, or wall.

LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design)

Method of proportioning structural components such that the design strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the LRFD load combinations.

LRFD Load Combination

Load combination in the applicable building code intended for strength design (Load and Resistance Factor Design).

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M Shapes

A hot rolled shape called a Miscellaneous Shape with symbol M that cannot be identified as W, HP, or S Shapes.

Major Axis

The axis of a structural member possessing the largest section modulus and radius of gyration, thus having the greatest flexural and axial compressive strength.

Mark

An identification number or method of relating to the erector which steel joist, joist girder or other separate part of the building goes at what location when being erected, i.e., J1, K25, L7, G12, or JG9. See Piece Mark and Part Number.

Masonry

A type of construction from materials such as concrete blocks, bricks, concrete, stone, or ceramic blocks which is laid unit by unit and set in mortar.

Material

Steel joists (bar joists), Joist Girders, metal decking and accessories, and castellated beams as provided by the Seller.

Maxwell Diagram

A graphical method of determining stresses in a truss, by combining force polygons of all the joints into one stress diagram.

MBMA (Metal Building Manufacturers Association)

An association of manufacturers of metal building systems whose objectives are to compile and publish recommended design standards, which will insure high quality metal buildings.

MC Shapes

A hot rolled shape called a Miscellaneous Channel with symbol MC.

Mechanical Unit

An air conditioner or other unit either placed on top of a roof system or hung below which applies loads to steel joists or joist girders.

Mega

SI Prefix for 10^6 or 1000000.

Member Release

An idealization to model how members are attached to "each other". It designates whether forces and moments at the ends of a member are considered fixed to or released from the member's point of attachment.

MEP

Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing – generally encompassing construction elements of various trades to be considered in a BIM approach.

Metal Building

Also known as a steel building, a metal structure fabricated with steel for the internal support and, commonly but not exclusively, for exterior cladding.

Metal Building System

A building system consisting of a group of coordinated components, which have been designed for a certain loading. These components are mass produced and assembled in various combinations with other structural materials to produce a building.

Metal Decking

Also known as steel decking, a structural corrugated steel component used as the material layer between the primary structural components.

Metal Joists

Open Web Steel Joist (OWSJ), a lightweight steel truss consisting, in the standard form, of parallel chords and a triangulated web system, proportioned to span between bearing points. Also known as steel joists or bar joists.

Metal Stud

A structural steel member used for framing walls just as a regular wooden one.

Meuller-Breslau Principle

Is a simple method to draw approximate shapes of influence lines.

Mezzanine

A low floor between two stories in a building, usually just above the ground floor.

MHI (Material Handling Industry)

Is a not-for-profit organization, which was formed to advance the interests of the material handling industry which includes the movement, storage, control, and protection of material and products throughout the process of their manufacture, distribution, consumption, and disposal.

Mil

A measurement of thickness of paint. One mil=.001 of an inch.

Milled

A surface that has been accurately sawed or finished to a true plane.

Mill Test Report

A report of a heat of steel that indicates the customer's order number, grade of steel, number and dimensions of pieces shipped, and the chemical compositional makeup of hot rolled structural steel members. It also indicates physical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, impact, and ultimate strength.

Milli

SI prefix for 10^-3 or 0.001

Minor Axis

The axis of a structural member possessing the smallest section modulus and radius of gyration, thus having the least flexural and axial compressive strength.

Miter Cut

A single cut made at an angle to the member length. See Bevel Cut.

Modulus of Elasticity (E)

Is the slope of the straight-line portion of the stress-strain curve in the elastic range found by dividing the unit stress in ksi by the unit strain in in/in. For all structural steels, the value is usually taken as 29,000 ksi. This is also called Young's Modulus.

Moment

The tendency of a force to cause a rotation about a point or axis, which in turn produces bending stresses.

Moment Connection

A connection designed to transfer moment as well as axial and shear forces between connecting members.

Moment Diagram

A diagram that represents graphically the moment at every point along the length of a member.

Moment of Inertia (I)

A physical property of a member, which helps define rigidity or stiffness and is expressed in inches raised to the fourth power. It is a measure of the resistance to rotation offered by a section's geometry and size.

Moment Plate

A welded steel plate used to develop a rigid connection to the supporting member so that moment transfer can occur.

Monorail

Usually a single rail support for a material handling system.

MPC (Materials Properties Council)

Abbreviation.

MPS

Abbreviation for 'Model Progression Specification'.

MT

A hot rolled structural tee shape with symbol MT, which is cut or split from M Shapes.

Mullion

A vertical member or division between the panels of a window.

Mylar

A type of strong, thin polyester sheet used for producing blueprints of architectural drawings.

 

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