RESOURCES > GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Terms in BLUE and their definitions come from the AISC AND AISI STANDARD Standard Definitions for Use in the Design of Steel Structures, 2004 Edition, First Printing April 2005.
* These terms are usually qualified by the type of load effect, e.g., nominal tensile strength, available compressive strength, design flexural strength.
** Term usually qualified by the type of component, e.g. local web buckling, local flange buckling, etc.
Cost accounting simulation.
Abbreviation for 'Analysis and Design'.
A regulatory organization which governs the design and specifications of highway bridges.
Structural components related to the design, fabrication and erection of steel joists (bar joists) and Joist Girders including, but not limited to sloped end bearings, extended ends, ceiling extensions, bridging and bridging anchors, headers and bottom chord lateral bracing for Joist Girders.
Abbreviation for 'After Dead Load is Applied'.
Abbreviation for 'Architecture, Engineering and Construction'.
AEC newsletter – www.aecbytes.com
Term for a specific standard format used for BIM electronic data exchange.
Having the sense of beauty or pleasing to the eye.
Abbreviation for 'Above Finish Floor'.
A non-profit association representing the post-fabrication hot-dip galvanizing industry.
ACG of America is a national trade organization of qualified construction contractors and and industry related companies dedicated to skill, integrity, and responsibility. The AGCA is the voice of the construction industry and is dedicated to improving the quality of construction and protecting the public.
Published by AGC.
A word used when describing New Millennium's flexible and responsive approach to steel joist and metal decking design, production and delivery.
An organization to unite in fellowship the members of the architectural profession in the United States.
Is a non-profit technical specifying and trade organization for the fabricated structural steel industry in the United States. It was founded in 1921 with headquarters located in Chicago. One of their best-known manuals is the Manual of Steel Construction.
An institute to promote the interests of the iron and steel industry.
A nomograph for estimating the effective length factor, K, of columns in an unbraced frame. Note that the chart is based upon assumptions of idealized conditions, which seldom exist in real structures.
Nominal strength divided by the safety factor.
A measure of floor vibration. It is the magnitude or total distance traveled by each oscillation of the vibration.
A multiplier of the value of moment or deflection in the unbraced length of an axially loaded member to reflect secondary values generated by the eccentricity of the load.
A long 'L' shaped bolt, which is set in concrete and used to anchor columns or other members to a foundation or other support.
A plan view showing the size, location, and projection of all anchor bolts.
The process of fastening a steel joist or joist girder to a masonry, concrete, or steel support by either bolting or welding.
A hot rolled shape called an Angle with symbol L, which has equal legs or unequal legs.
A member used as a steel joist substitute, which is intended for use at very short spans (10 feet or less) where open web steel joists are impractical. They are usually used for short spans in skewed bays, over corridors, or for outriggers. It can be made up of two or four angles to form channel sections or box sections. Tube and channel sections are also used. See Joist Substitute.
A nonprofit organization, which promotes the use of U.S. standards internationally
The highest point on a steel joist or joist girder where the sloped chords meet. See also Peak.
Abbreviation for 'Application Programming Interface'.
Building code under which the structure is designed.
Plans sent by the steel joist manufacturer to the buyer, engineer, architect, contractor or other person for approval. The plans may include a framing plan, elevations, sections, and a material list.
A non-standard type of steel joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are curved parallel with each other.
Founded in 1852, is the oldest national professional engineering society in the United States. It is dedicated to the advancement of the individual civil engineer and the civil engineering profession through education.
Method of proportioning structural components such that the allowable strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the ASD load combinations.
Load combination in the applicable building code intended for allowable strength design (allowable stress design).
For any rectangular configuration, the ratio of the lengths of the sides.
An organization that has developed over 10,000 technical standards, which are used by industries worldwide.
An opening or skylighted lobby through two or more floor levels other than an enclosed stairway, elevator, etc.
The world's most popular computer-aided drafting software product for the personal computer in both DOS and windows by Autodesk, Inc. Anything that can be drawn on a drawing board can be drawn by AutoCAD.
A welding procedure using a machine to make a weld.
Any dynamic live loads such as cranes, monorails, and material handling systems.
Design strength or allowable strength as appropriate.
An organization established in 1984 to bridge the gap between the findings of basic welding research and the needs of the industry.
A non-profit organization whose major goal is to advance the science, technology, and application of welding and related joining disciplines.
A force tending to elongate or shorten a member.
An axial force causing compression in a member.
A load whose line of action passes through the centroid of the member's cross-sectional area and is perpendicular to the plane of the section.
A structural member designed to transfer axial tension or compression load only.
An axial force causing tension in a member.
A welding aid used to prevent melting through of a joint when preforming, for example, a complete-joint penetration groove weld.
An elevated platform or seating space of an assembly room projecting from a wall of a building.
A roof that has selected material, such as crushed stone, placed on its surface to hold down the roof from wind forces.
A square or round piece of solid steel, which is usually 6 inches or less in width.
Open Web Steel Joist (OWSJ), a lightweight steel truss consisting, in the standard form, of parallel chords and a triangulated web system, proportioned to span between bearing points. Also known as metal joists or steel joists.
The metal to be welded or cut.
A steel plate welded to the base of a column, which distributes the column loads over an area of foundation large enough to prevent crushing of the concrete and usually secured by anchor bolts.
One layer of felt fastened to the metal deck over which a built-up roof is applied.
A small piece of angle or plate welded to the heels of a two, angle web members or any two parallel components to tie them together and usually located at the middle of the member.
The distance between the main structural frames or walls of a building.
A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction.
A structural member, usually horizontal, whose main function is to carry loads transverse to its longitudinal axis. These loads usually cause bending of the beam member. Some types of beams are simple, continuous, and cantilever.
A structural member whose main function is to carry loads both parallel and transverse to its longitudinal axis.
The distance that the bearing shoe or seat of a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder extends over its masonry, concrete or steel support.
The steel plate used for a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder to bear on when it is supported by masonry or concrete supports. The plate is designed by the Specifying Professional to carry the steel joist reaction to the supporting structure.
A wall supporting any vertical loads in addition to its own weight.
The condition in the analysis of the internal stresses across the cross section of a member, when it is subjected to forces that cause it to bend.
Is zero at the neutral axis and assumed to increase linearly to a maximum at the outer fibers of the section. Formula in the elastic range: Bending stress (in psi)=(M * c)/I, where 'M' is the bending moment at the section in inch-lbs, 'I' is the moment of inertia of the section in inches^4, and 'c' is the distance from the neutral axis to the point at which the stress is desired in inches.
The plane of beam or joist girder members, which support loads and the columns which support these members.
A single cut made at an angle to the member length. See Miter Cut.
A type of joist girder where steel joists are located at all panel points at which vertical webs and diagonal webs intersect the top chord.
Bending of a structural member at two perpendicular axes at the same time.
The phenomenon whereby a perfectly straight member may either assume a deflected position, deflect, then twist out of plane, or may remain in an undeflected configuration.
A list that gives each part or mark number, quantity, length of material, total weight, or other description of each piece of material that is shipped to a jobsite. The receiver compares each item on this list to what is on the truck and signs the statement. See also Shipping List.
A list of items or components used for fabrication and accounting purposes. See Cut-List.
Abbreviation for 'Building Information Modeling'.
Current model of contractual language.
Whoever contractually has control of the 3-D model, the gatekeeper and possibly manager of the server.
500-page guide published 2008 by John Wiley & Sons.
A method of cleaning or of roughening a surface by a forceable stream of sharp angular abrasive.
Also called a blue line. Is a copy of an architectural or other drawing made by a special machine usually on white paper with the lines and text being a blue color.
A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction. It serves primarily the North Central and Northeast United States.
The connection between two structural members joined at their ends by bolting to form a single, longer member.
The top course of block of a masonry wall filled with concrete and reinforcing steel and used to support roof loads.
A bearing condition, where the steel joist or joist girder bears on its bottom chord and not at an underslung condition.
The bottom members of a steel joist or joist girder.
The two angle extended part of a joist bottom chord from the first bottom chord panel point towards the end of the steel joist (bar joist).
A bottom chord of a steel joist or joist girder designed to transfer an axial tension or compression load.
An idealization to model how a structure is attached to its "external" points of support, for example, pin, fixed, roller, or shear release.
A non-standard type of steel joist where the top chord is curved and the bottom chord is straight or level.
Used in a graphical analysis of a steel joist or joist girder. It is a notation for denoting truss joints, members, loads, and forces. Capital letters are placed in the spaces between truss members and between forces. Each member and load is then designated by the letters on opposite sides of it.
Abbreviation for 'Building Product Manufacturer'.
A frame that resists lateral loads by the use of diagonal bracing, K-braces, or other system of bracing.
A structural support attached to a column or wall on which to fasten another structural member.
A lifting system which has a hoist that moves laterally on a beam or other member, which then in turn moves longitudinally on a runway made of beams and rails.
In general, a member connected to a steel joist (bar joist) to brace it from lateral movement. See also Diagonal Bridging and Horizontal Bridging.
An angle or bent plate attached to a wall where the bridging will be attached or anchored, either by welding or bolting. The ends of all bridging lines terminating at walls or beams shall be anchored thereto.
A small piece of angle or plate with a hole or slot that is welded to the top and bottom chord angles so that bridging may be attached.
A diagram of the profile of a steel joist used to show the number and location of the rows of bridging.
The tearing or splitting of a member with little or no prior ductile deformation.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree fahrenheit.
Limit state of sudden change in the geometry of a structure or any of its elements under a critical loading condition.
The load at which a straight member, under compression, transfers to a deflected position.
Nominal strength for buckling or instability limit states.
Any structure used for support or for shelter.
Regulations established by a recognized agency describing design loads, procedures, quality of materials, and construction details for buildings for the protection of the public.
A registered architect or registered engineer who is responsible for the design of a structure. See Specifying Professional.
The officer or other authority, which has the duty of administration and enforcement of a building code.
Trademarked NIBS effort to standardize and coordinate the business sector's effort in IFC.
A type of roof composed of two or more layers of alternating felt, tar and asphalt.
A structural member made up from individual flat plates welded together or any structural metal elements that are welded or bolted together.
The end plate of a structural member usually used to rest or butt against a like plate of another member in forming a connection.
The entity that has agreed to purchase material from the manufacturer and has also agreed to the terms of sale.
A hot rolled shape called an American Standard Channel with symbol C.
A structural member cold-formed from sheet steel in the shape of a block "C" which can be used by itself or back to back with another C Section.
Abbreviation for Computer-Aided Drafting.
A mechanical instrument usually having a pair of pivoted legs adjustable to any distance and used to measure thickness, distances between surfaces, and any internal or external diameter which is inaccessible with a scale.
An upward curvature of the chords of a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder induced during shop fabrication. Note this is in addition to the pitch of the top chord.
A projecting member that is supported at one end only.
A metal decking accessory which is a short piece of gage steel used at 45 degrees where a wall or parapet meets the end of deck.
A seat that is sloped perpendicular to the member, which most steel joist manufacturers do not do. Usually the steel contractor furnishes a bent plate shim to provide level bearing for the seat.
The part of a member that extends freely over a support, which is not supported at its end.
A steel plate welded to the top of a column, which a steel joist, joist girder, or other structural member can bear on.
Suspended structural framing used to provide access to and between areas below a roof and above a floor.
Construction Drawings or documents
A bottom chord extension except that only one angle of the steel joist (bar joist) bottom chord is extended from the first bottom chord panel point towards the end of the steel joist.
A theoretical span definition, which is the distance between the actual centerlines of a beam, column, steel joist, or joist girder.
The point in a member at the intersection of two perpendicular axes so located that the moments of the areas on opposite sides of an axis about that axis is zero.
A welder who has been certified by a competent experienced welding inspector or a recognized testing facility in the field of welding. The welder must be certified to make certain welds under qualified procedures. The welder must be qualified for each position, type weld, electrode, and thickness of base metal that is to be welded in the shop or field.
A written document which modifies the plans, specifications, or price of a construction contract.
A hot rolled structural shape that looks like "[". There are American Standard Channels designated by (C) and Miscellaneous Channels designated by (MC).
The top and bottom members of a steel joist (bar joist) or Joist Girder. When a chord is comprised of two angles there is usually a gap between the members.
An AISC approved steel industry file format for electronic exchange of data, one of several file formats being considered as “interoperable” for BIM participation, not supported by contractor software.
The exterior covering of the structural members of a building.
Instances noted by a 3D drawing where two elements occur in the same space and conflict, i.e. ductwork that collides with steel joist (bar joist) members.
Property built into some but not all 3-D software.
Meetings (possibly weekly) by A/E, G.C., subs and others to resolve clashes.
The actual clear distance or opening between supports for a steel joist (bar joist) that is the distance between walls or the distance between the edges of flanges of beams.
A U-shaped yoke with internal threads in one end, which can be attached to a threaded rod and the other end a connection with a hole used for a pin or bolt attachment.
A structural angle, which attaches to the side of a wall, column, beam, etc. where a steel joist, joist girder, or other structural member bears.
A floor deck accessory made of gage metal which is placed over the ends of metal decking so that concrete cannot run out of the flutes of the deck.
The change in length, per unit, for a change of one degree of temperature.
Shape manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets, cut lengths of coils or plates, or by roll forming cold- or hot-rolled coils or sheets; both forming operations being performed at ambient room temperature, that is, without manifest addition of heat such as would be required for hot forming.
All additional dead loads other than the weight of the building, such as sprinklers, pipes, ceilings, and mechanical or electrical components.
Putting employees from different disciplines on the same site to expedite the BIM coordination and clash resolution process. i.e., steel joist (bar joist) draftsman going to the steel detailer's site.
A main vertical member carrying axial loads, which can be combined with bending and shear, from the main roof beams or girders to the foundation. These structural members carry loads parallel to its longitudinal axis.
A curve that shows the relationship between axial column strength and slenderness ratio.
A steel section whose flanges must be continuously connected to the webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression element, and cannot exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios designated in the AISC Manual.
A steel beam and a concrete slab connected, usually by shear stud connectors, so that they act together to resist the load on the beam.
A non-standard type of steel joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are curved but not parallel with each other.
A non-standard type of steel joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are double pitched but not parallel with each other.
A condition caused by the action of squeezing or shortening of a component.
Any member in which the primary stress is longitudinal compression.
A single load or force that has such a small contact area as to be negligible compared with the entire surface area of the supporting member and applied at a certain point on the structure.
Combination of structural elements and joints used to transmit forces between two or more members. See also Splice.
The term given to a structural system denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to member, as if there were no connections.
A span that extends over several supports and has more than two points.
A weld that extends continuously from one end of a joint to the other.
A legal document or agreement, enforceable by law, between two or more parties for the doing of something specified, such as the building of a building or furnishing materials.
Contract drawings, specifications, etc., used to build a structure, which define the responsibilities of the parties involved.
All the architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, etc. plans that make up a legal set of contract documents to build a building by.
Framing using conventional steel joists, beams, columns, masonry walls, etc. instead of framing used in Metal Building construction.
The process of removing certain sections of a structural steel member to allow easier fitup to the supporting structural member.
Successive courses of masonry projecting from the face of a wall to increase its thickness or to form a shelf or ledge for a structural member to bear on.
A long plate usually welded to the top or bottom flange of a rolled steel beam or to the bottom chord of a steel joist or joist girder to increase the load carrying capacity of that member.
The width of a steel deck sheet, i.e., 30 inches or 36 inches.
1) A machine used to move material by means of a hoist; 2) A machine that can usually move and is used to lift heavy materials or to lift members that are to be erected in a structure.
A time-dependent deformation of a structural member under a sustained constant load.
A ridge or drainage diverting roof framing.
A regular angel whose ends have been 'crimped' in the shape of a 'U' whose out-to-out distance is usually one inch. The actual crimped portion of the angle is only a few inches on each end and the end is inserted between top or bottom chord members to be welded.
The load at which deflection of a member or structure occurs as determined by stability analysis.
A raised edge of a concrete floor slab or support for a mechanical unit.
A non-load bearing exterior wall, which carries only its own weight and wind load.
The rotation per unit length of a member due to bending forces.
A list of components with dimensions used for fabrication and accounting purposes. See Bill of Materials.
For floor vibrations, it is the rate of decay of amplitude.
Abbreviation for 'Design-Build'.
Abbreviation for 'Design-Bid-Build'.
Abbreviation for 'Design Drawings' or documents.
Loads due to the weight of the components making up the structure and that are intended to remain permanently in place.
A floor or roof covering made out of gage metal attached by welding or mechanical means to steel joists (bar joists), beams, purlins, or other structural members and can be galvanized, painted, or unpainted.
A Project Delivery System where, in contrast to “design-bid-build” (or “design-tender”), the design and construction aspects are contracted by a single entity.
Applied load determined in accordance with either LRFD load combinations or ASD load combinations, whichever is applicable.
The specific type of steel deck to be specified, such as Type “B” Wide Rib, Type “F” Intermediate, Type “N” Deep Rib, Type “A” Narrow Rib, Composite, Cellular, etc.
The displacement of a structural member or system under load.
The act of distorting or changing the shape or dimensions of a structural element or body resulting from forces or stresses.
The out-to-out distance from the top of the top chord to the bottom of the bottom chord taken at some reference location, usually at the midspan of the steel joist or joist girder
The plans, details, sections, specifications, etc. prepared by the building designer.
The 'span' of a steel joist or joist girder in feet minus 0.3333 feet.
The loads specified in the contract drawings or specifications, which a building is to be designed for.
Resistance factor multiplied by the nominal strength.
Structural members, which are inclined and are usually carrying axial load which enable a structural frame to behave as a truss to resist horizontal loads.
Two angles or other structural shapes connected from the top chord of one steel joist (bar joist) to the bottom chord of the next joist to form an 'X' shape. These members are almost always connected at their point of intersection.
Roof, floor or other membrane or bracing system that transfers in-plane forces to the lateral force resisting system.
The resistance to a racking affect or in-plane shear forces offered by roof deck, panels, or other structural members when properly attached to a structural frame.
When end moments on a structural member produce a bending effect which cause the member to form an S shape or has a reversal in curvature.
The leg of a structural angle, which is projecting down from you when viewing.
The lateral movement or deflection of a structure.
The ratio of the lateral deflection to the height of the building.
A tapered pin used during the erection process to align holes in steel members, which are to be connected by bolting.
Any tube, pipe or other conduit by which air or fluid is transferred.
The round or square opening required through the web system of a steel joist or joist girder to allow passage of a duct.
Is the ability of a material to withstand large inelastic deformations, without fracture. Structural steel has considerable ductility.
The ratio of the total deformation at maximum load to the elastic-limit deformation.
Abbreviation for 'Drawing Web Format'.
AutoCAD drawing format.
Abbreviation for 'Drawing Exchange Formats'.
3-D BIM digital steel joist design component add-on for Tekla Structures version 16.0 R1.
A load that varies with time, which includes repeated loads, seismic loads, and other loads created by rapid movement.
New Millennium's unique ability to adjust to any steel joist or metal decking project timeline or changing erection site needs, including staged and just-in-time deliveries.
The line along the sidewall of a building, formed by the intersection of the plane of the roof and the plane of the wall.
The vertical distance from finished floor to the eave.
A structural member located at the eave of a building, which supports a roof and/or wall panels.
The condition that exists when a load is applied on a line of action that does not pass through the centroid of the body it is applied to.
The distance between a line of action of force and the centroid of the member it is applied to.
1) A structural angle that is connected around the edge of a steel joist extension or other member 2) An angle used around the sides of a floor to contain the concrete when it is being poured which is also called a Pour Stop.
The distance from the center of a hole to the edge of a connected part.
The width or region around the edges of a building where uplift values are higher than in the interior of the roof.
The distance from the centroid of the top chord to the centroid of the bottom chord.
The equivalent length, KL, used in compression formulas. This method estimates the interaction effects of the total frame on a compression member by using K factors to equate the strength of a framed compression member of length L to an equivalent pin-ended member of length KL subject to axial load only.
The ratio between the effective length and the unbraced length of a member measured between center of gravities of the bracing members. K values are given for several idealized conditions in which joint rotation and translation are realized.
The moment of inertia of the cross section of a member that remains elastic when partial plastification takes place. See Moment of Inertia.
The transverse distance indicating the amount of slab that acts in conjuction with the supporting member.
Abbrevbation for 'Expansion Joint'.
The analysis of a member, which assumes that material deformation disappears on removal of the force that produced it and the material returns to its original state.
See Allowable Stress Design and Working Stress Design.
The device through which current is conducted through to the arc or base metal during the process of welding.
A steel member such as a plate, bolt, stud, or bar cast into a concrete structure, which is used to transmit applied loads to the concrete.
The bay that is located from the end of a building to the first interior main frame.
The first web member on either end of a steel joist or joist girder, which begins at the top chord at the seat and ends at the first bottom chord panel point.
The horizontal distance from the first top chord panel point at the end of a steel joist to the first bottom chord panel point.
The lap at the end of a sheet of steel deck, which bears over the primary support (steel joist or beam).
A moment that is generated at one end or both ends of a steel joist, joist girder, or beam due to continuous frame action which can be caused by wind, live load, or dead load moment.
The distance from the panel point at the steel joist seat to the first top chord panel point towards the interior.
An exterior wall, which is perpendicular to the ridge of the building.
A graphical plot indicating the maximum magnitude of an internal force effect, such as flexual stess, shear stress, axial stress, torsional stress, etc. due to a series of load combinations.
Abbreviation for 'Edge of Deck'.
Abbreviation for 'Edge of Joist'.
Abbreviation for 'Edge of Slab'.
The equations relating a state of static equilibrium of a member or structure, when the resultant of all forces and moments are equal to zero. Three equations must be fulfilled simultaneously: Sum of the forces in the X-direction must equal zero, sum of the forces in the Y-direction must equal zero, and the sum of the moments about any point must equal zero for a two dimensional structure.
A uniform load (in plf) derived from the maximum reaction (in lbs) or the maximum moment (in inch-lbs) of a member carrying various loads. Formula: Weq= 2 * max. reaction (in lbs) divided by length (in feet) or Weq=(8 * max. moment) divided by (lenght^2 (in feet) * 12)
The process of installing steel joists, joist girders, beams, bridging, metal decking, or other structural members in order to construct a structure.
Floor or roof plans that identify individual marks, components, and accessories furnished by the steel joist manufactures in a detailed manner to permit proper erection of the steel joist and joist girders. See Framing Plan and Placing Plan.
The entity that is responsible for the safe and proper erection of the materials in accordance with all applicable codes and regulations.
Abbreviation for 'Enterprise Resource Planning' – a computer system.
Abbreviation for 'Engineered to Order'.
A break in construction or a special design detail to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the materials of a structure.
Data modeling language.
The extended part of a joist top chord with the seat angles also being extended from the end of the steel joist (bar joist) extension back into the joist and maintaining the standard end bearing depth over the entire length of the extension.
The manufacturing process to convert raw materials into a finished product, by cutting, punching, welding, cleaning, and painting.
Is the ratio of the ultimate load for a member divided by the allowable load for a member and must always be greater than unity.
Is the ratio of the ultimate load for a member divided by the allowable load for a member and must always be greater than unity.
Product of a load factor and the nominal load.
For steel joists and joist girders, when looking at the member with the tagged end to the right, it is the side that is opposite the side you see first.
The flat surface located at the outer end of a roof overhang, or cantilever end, or also a decorative trim or panel which projects from the face of a wall.
Term for a connecting device such as a weld, bolt, rivet, etc.
Abbreviation for 'Field Cut'.
Facility Condition Index – metric related to BIM for older pre-existing facilities.
A term used for the jobsite or building site where construction of the project will take place.
The specific term used for the welding of structural members out at the actual jobsite and not in a fabricators shop.
A rod, plate, or angle welded between a two-angle web member or between a top or bottom chord panel to tie them together, usually located at the middle of the member. See Tie or Plug.
In deck terminology, the coating on the steel deck sheet, i.e., galvanized, painted, or unpainted.
A roof deck accessory made out of gage metal for finishing out runs of steel deck for small areas of coverage where full sheet coverage is impractical.
The process of coating a structural steel member with a fire retardant material to make the member resistant to fire.
The ability of a steel joist or other structural member to resist a fire due to the type of protection it has, such as membrane protection or spray on protection. There are hundreds of floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies with their fire-resistance rating given in the Underwriters Laboratory Fire Directory.
A condition where no rotation or horizontal or vertical movement can occur at that end. This type of support has no degrees of freedom. Three reactive forces exist at the rigidly fixed end. See also Rigid Connection.
The projecting edge of a structural member.
A structural bracing member used to provide lateral support to the flange of a beam, the bottom chord or a joist girder, or a column.
Pieces of sheet metal or the like used to cover and protect joints, etc. where a roof comes in contact with a wall or chimney.
We keep our promises. When you ask for steel joists and metal decking delivered by a certain time, and we say we can do it, it gets done. We don't overlook the details that can bring a job to a standstill. We refuse to let little problems become big problems.
Buckling mode in which a compression member deflects laterally without twist or change in cross-sectional shape.
Buckling mode in which a compression member bends and twists simultaneously without change in cross-sectional shape.
The fold or bend in a sheet of steel deck which forms a groove or furrow.
A leader in property loss prevention engineering and adjustment. It helps companies prevent and control property loss through research, engineering, and education.
A moveable wall on a track suspended from a steel joist or beam, which usually folds like an accordion and can be stored in a closet or pocket in a wall.
A concrete pad or mat located under a column, wall, or other structural member that distributes loads from that member into the supporting soil.
The substructure that supports a building or other structure.
A structural framing system consisting of members joined together with moment or rigid connections, which maintain their original angular relationship under load without the need for bracing in its plane. See Rigid Frame.
Headers or other structural members, which surround an opening in a roof which can be for mechanical units, stairwells, etc.
Floor or roof plans that identify individual marks, components, and accessories furnished by the steel joist manufactures in a detailed manner to permit proper erection of the steel joist and joist girders. See Erection Plan and Placing Plan.
A diagram on which all of the external forces acting on a body are shown at their respective points of application.
A measure of floor vibration. It is the speed of the oscillations of vibration and is expressed in cycles per secong or Hz (Hertz).
ACG of America is a national trade organization of qualified construction contractors and industry related companies dedicated to skill, integrity, and responsibility. The AGCA is the voice of the construction industry and is dedicated to improving the quality of construction and protecting the public.
A type of Steel Joist Girder where steel joists are located at panel points where diagonal webs intersect the top chord only.
The triangular portion of a roof located above the elevation of the eave line of a double-sloped roof.
A non-standard type of steel joist where the top chord is double pitched at an extreme pitch (say 3/12) and the bottom chord is straight or level.
1) The thickness of a sheet of deck; or 2) The distance from centerline hole to centerline hole across a set of holes, usually perpendicular to the steel joist or joist girder.
The process of coating steel with zinc for corrosion resistance.
A roof having two slopes on each side, the lower slope usually steeper than the upper one.
New subset of BIM efforts that focuses on green building design and operation and organizes information for energy simulation purposes.
A main horizontal, primary structural member spanning between two main supports, which carries other members or vertical loads.
Horizontal structural member that supports wall panels and is primarily subjected to bending under horizontal loads, such as wind load.
The ground elevation around a building.
Load, such as that produced by dead and live loads, acting in the downward direction.
A short beam used like a bearing plate to distribute large reactive loads to a wall such as the load from a joist girder.
A steel plate used to connect structural steel members or to reinforce members. It is usually inserted between the top or bottom chord of a steel joist or joist girder.
A series of joist adopted in 1961 so proportioned that the allowable tension or bending stress does not exceed 22,000 psi or 30,000 psi depending on whether 36 ksi or 50 ksi yield steel was used.
Is a measure of the resistance of a material to scratching and indention.
A structural member located between two steel joists or between a steel joist and a wall, which carries another steel joist or joists. Usually made up of an angle, channel, or beam with saddle angle connections on each end for bearing.
The outside point of a structural angle, where the two perpendicular legs intersect.
A structural steel bolt having a tensile strength greater than 100,000 pounds per square inch, usually A325 or A490.
Structural steel having a yield stress greater than 36,000 pounds per square inch.
This type of support has one degree of freedom, it can freely rotate about its axis but it cannot displace in any direction. Two mutually perpendicular reactive forces exist at the hinge and their lines of action pass through the center of the hinge. See Pin Connection or Support.
A roof that slopes from all four sides of a building. The line where two adjacent sloping sides intersect is called the 'hip'.
A system of roof framing, where support members form valleys and ridges.
A chain or electric lifting device usually attached to a trolly, which travels along a monorail or bridge crane.
A material having the same engineering design properties throughout.
The linear relationship of forces and deformations, or stresses and strains.
A continuous angle or other structural shape connected to the top and bottom chord of a steel joist horizontally whose l/r ratio cannot exceed 300
Is zero at the outer fibers of a section and is maximum at the neutral axis. It tends to cause one part of the section to slide past the other. Formula: Horizontal Shear stress (in psi)=(V * Q)/I*t, where 'V' is the external vertical shear on the section in lbs, 'I' is the moment of inertia of the section in inches^4, 'Q' is the statical moment about the neutral axis of the entire section of that portion of the cross-section lying outside of the cutting plane and 't' is the width at the cutting plane.
Structural steel sections which are formed by rolling mills from molten steel which can be angles, channels, W Shapes, S Shapes, etc.
A hot rolled shape with symbol HP used for bearing piles, which have essentially parallel flanges and equal web and flange thickness.
A term that describes the behavior of a structural member subjected to reversed, repeated load into the inelastic range whose plot of load verses displacement is characterized by loops. The amount of energy dissipated during inelastic loading is indicated by the enclosed area within these loops.
Abbreviation for 'International Alliance for Interoperability'.
A minimum model regulatory code dedicated to public safety through development and promotion of uniform codes and standards.
A dam or blockage formed on a roof by the buildup of ice along the eave of a building.
Abbreviation for 'Information Delivery Manual' – European effort in IFC, see NBIMS.
Industry Foundation Classes – broad term for standard formats used for most BIM electronic data exchange, developed by the IAI.
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification – standard format for exchanging three-dimensional data and information.
The factor by which the static weight is increased by dynamic application.
A weight that is dropped or a dynamic load generated by movement of a live load such as vehicles, craneways, etc.
The ability of a material to absorb the energy of a load delivered rapidly to a member.
A pneumatic device used to tighten nuts on bolts.
Nonmetallic material that is entrapped in sound metal.
Deformation of a material that does not disappear when the force that produced it is removed.
Structural analysis that takes into account inelastic material behavior, including plastic analysis.
Represent a point of zero moment in structural member.
An influence line is a curve whose ordinates give the values of some particular function (shear, moment, reaction, etc.) in an element due to a unit load acting at the point corresponding to the particular ordinate being considered. Influence lines for statically determinate structures are straight lines and for statically indeterminate structures the lines are curved and their construction involves considerable analysis.
A condition reached when a structure or structural member is loaded in which continued deformation results in a decrease in its load-resisting capacity.
Any material used to reduce heat transfer in a roof or building.
The collaborative process of people, systems, business structures and practices that harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction.
A weld that is not continuous. It is broken by recurring, unwelded spaces.
The pressure inside a building, which is a function of the wind velocity and the number and locations of openings.
Bearing supports that are interior to two exterior supports.
Is a series of quality management and assurance standards for companies to strive for.
Abbreviation for 'Integrated Project Delivery'.
A material having equal physical properties along all axes.
A series of steel joist adopted in 1961 so proportioned that the allowable tension or bending stress does not exceed 22,000 psi and was made from A36 steel.
A joist girder that is supporting another joist girder.
Abbreviation for 'Joist Bearing Elevation'.
A cantilevered boom or beam with a hoist and trolley used to pick up loads in all or part of a circle around which it is attached.
A device which holds work or pieces of material in a certain position until rigidly fastened or welded during the fabrication process.
The specific location where a structure is being built.
Area where two or more ends, surfaces or edges are attached. Categorized by type of fastener or weld used and the method of force transfer.
The minimum depth the weld metal extends from its face into a joint.
A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member. Also known as steel joist or bar joist. Currently, the SJI has the following joist designations: K-Series including KCS, LH-Series and DLH-Series.
A standard way of communicating the joist safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities for a given span such as 16K5 or 24K10 where the first number is the nominal steel joist depth at midspan and the last number is the chord size. See Longspan Designation and Joist Girder Designation.
A primary structural load-carrying member with an open web system designed as a simple span supporting equally spaced concentrated loads of a floor or roof system acting at the panel points of the member and utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel.
A standard way of communicating the girder design loads such as 48G6N10.5K where the first number is the nominal girder depth at midspan, 6N is the number of steel joist spaces on the span of girder, and 10.5K is the kip load on each panel point of the girder. The approximate dead load weight of the member is included in the kip load. See Joist Designation and Longspan Designation.
The producer of steel joists (bar joists) special profile joists (specialty joists) or joist girders who is SJI approved.
The distance from one steel joist to another.
A structural member who's intended use is for very short spans (10 feet or less) where open web steel joists (bar joists) are impractical. They are usually used for short spans in skewed bays, over corridors or for outriggers. It can be made up of two or four angles to form channel sections or box sections.
The distance from the outside fiber of a rolled steel beam to the web toe of the fillet of a rolled shape.
A series of steel joist adopted in 1986 based on a load/span type of determination.
Is a K-Series steel joist that is designed to support uniform load plus concentrated loads or other non-uniform loads.
The width of a cut produced during a cutting process.
A small reference plan or outline of the whole building on each plan sheet divided into smaller areas, for which each sheet is drawn. It can also show different sequences, phases, sheet number that area is drawn on, etc.
A structural member used to brace a steel joist or beam usually at an angle.
SI prefix for 10^3 or 1000.
A unit of weight equal to 1000 pounds.
A structural brace positioned diagonally between a beam or column and a steel joist panel point.
A vertical plate used as a steel joist seat whose width is small for bearing purposes. It is used for hip and valley bearing conditions, canted seat conditions, and extreme skewed conditions.
Is 1000 pounds per square inch.
Is 1000 kips per square foot.
Is a separation or crack in the base metal caused by through-thickness weld shrinkage strains of adjacent weld metal.
Buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending.
Members, fasteners, or welds, which brace a member at certain locations to prevent lateral movement.
Buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending occurring simultaneously with twist about the shear center of the cross section
Controlling project to minimize cost i.e. steel joists and metal decking delivered to site in accurate liftable bundles, ready for trailer straight to erection.
A structure depending upon another structure for support and having only one slope such as a shed.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, the standard for Green Building design.
The direction toward which the wind is blowing, which is opposite the side from which the wind blows. Opposite of windward.
The flat projecting part of a structural angle.
A steel plate used on top of a foundation on which a structural column can be placed.
Condition in which a structure or component becomes unfit for service and is judged either to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to have reached its ultimate load-carrying capacity (strength limit state).
A horizontal structural member spanning a door, window, or other wall opening which supports a wall or any construction immediately above.
Loads on a member that are not permanent and are likely to be moved at some point in the life of the structure. They can be loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building. These loads do not include dead load, wind load, snow load, or seismic load.
Force or other action that results from the weight of building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, or restrained dimensional changes.
The combination of loads that produce the worse loading condition in a structural member.
Forces, stresses, and deformations produced in a structural component by the applied loads.
Factor that accounts for deviations of the nominal load from the actual load, for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.
A table of standard steel joist designations which give the total safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities and live load-carrying capacities of the steel joists for different span lengths. The table also gives the approximate weight per foot of each steel joist designation.
A diagram that shows all design loads and design criteria that a member is to be designed for. The loads include: dead load, live load, snow drift, concentrated loads, moments, etc. The design criteria include: deflection requirements, load combinations, net uplift, one-third increase in allowable stress allowed or not, etc.
Limit state of buckling of a compression element within a cross section.
Abbreviation for 'Level of Detail' – extent to which components are modeled.
Modeling for one's own use as opposed to Social BIM – modeling done by one or a group for general group use.
The direction extending along the long axis of the member.
A standard way of communicating the longspan steel joist safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities for a given clear span such as 18LH06 or 36LH10 where the first number is the nominal steel joist depth at midspan and the last number is the section number. See Joist Designation and Joist Girder Designation.
A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member. These carry higher loads than a regular steel joist.
A single or double angle either welded or bolted at the first bottom chord panel point and extended to brace another member such as a beam, joist girder, frame, or wall.
Method of proportioning structural components such that the design strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the LRFD load combinations.
Load combination in the applicable building code intended for strength design (Load and Resistance Factor Design).
A hot rolled shape called a Miscellaneous Shape with symbol M that cannot be identified as W, HP, or S Shapes.
The axis of a structural member possessing the largest section modulus and radius of gyration, thus having the greatest flexural and axial compressive strength.
An identification number or method of relating to the erector which steel joist, joist girder or other separate part of the building goes at what location when being erected, i.e., J1, K25, L7, G12, or JG9. See Piece Mark and Part Number.
A type of construction from materials such as concrete blocks, bricks, concrete, stone, or ceramic blocks which is laid unit by unit and set in mortar.
Steel joists (bar joists), Joist Girders, metal decking and accessories as provided by the Seller.
A graphical method of determining stresses in a truss, by combining force polygons of all the joints into one stress diagram.
An association of manufacturers of metal building systems whose objectives are to compile and publish recommended design standards, which will insure high quality metal buildings.
A hot rolled shape called a Miscellaneous Channel with symbol MC.
An air conditioner or other unit either placed on top of a roof system or hung below which applies loads to steel joists or joist girders.
SI Prefix for 10^6 or 1000000.
An idealization to model how members are attached to "each other". It designates whether forces and moments at the ends of a member are considered fixed to or released from the member's point of attachment.
Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing – generally encompassing construction elements of various trades to be considered in a BIM approach.
Also known as a steel building, a metal structure fabricated with steel for the internal support and, commonly but not exclusively, for exterior cladding.
A building system consisting of a group of coordinated components, which have been designed for a certain loading. These components are mass produced and assembled in various combinations with other structural materials to produce a building.
Also known as steel decking, a structural corrugated steel component used as the material layer between the primary structural components.
Open Web Steel Joist (OWSJ), a lightweight steel truss consisting, in the standard form, of parallel chords and a triangulated web system, proportioned to span between bearing points. Also known as steel joists or bar joists.
A structural steel member used for framing walls just as a regular wooden one.
Is a simple method to draw approximate shapes of influence lines.
A low floor between two stories in a building, usually just above the ground floor.
Is a not-for-profit organization, which was formed to advance the interests of the material handling industry which includes the movement, storage, control, and protection of material and products throughout the process of their manufacture, distribution, consumption, and disposal.
A measurement of thickness of paint. One mil=.001 of an inch.
A surface that has been accurately sawed or finished to a true plane.
A report of a heat of steel that indicates the customer's order number, grade of steel, number and dimensions of pieces shipped, and the chemical compositional makeup of hot rolled structural steel members. It also indicates physical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, impact, and ultimate strength.
SI prefix for 10^-3 or 0.001
The axis of a structural member possessing the smallest section modulus and radius of gyration, thus having the least flexural and axial compressive strength.
A single cut made at an angle to the member length. See Bevel Cut.
Is the slope of the straight-line portion of the stress-strain curve in the elastic range found by dividing the unit stress in ksi by the unit strain in in/in. For all structural steels, the value is usually taken as 29,000 ksi. This is also called Young's Modulus.
The tendency of a force to cause a rotation about a point or axis, which in turn produces bending stresses.
A connection designed to transfer moment as well as axial and shear forces between connecting members.
A diagram that represents graphically the moment at every point along the length of a member.
A physical property of a member, which helps define rigidity or stiffness and is expressed in inches raised to the fourth power. It is a measure of the resistance to rotation offered by a section's geometry and size.
A welded steel plate used to develop a rigid connection to the supporting member so that moment transfer can occur.
Usually a single rail support for a material handling system.
Abbreviation for 'Model Progression Specification'.
A hot rolled structural tee shape with symbol MT, which is cut or split from M Shapes.
A vertical member or division between the panels of a window.
A type of strong, thin polyester sheet used for producing blueprints of architectural drawings.